Khan Engineering

Khan Engineering

We're the engineers behind Khan Academy. We're building a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere.


Latest posts

Making Websites Work with Windows High Contrast Mode

Diedra Rater on March 21

Kotlin for Python developers

Aasmund Eldhuset on Nov 29, 2018

Using static analysis in Python, JavaScript and more to make your system safer

Kevin Dangoor on Jul 26, 2018

Kotlin on the server at Khan Academy

Colin Fuller on Jun 28, 2018

The Original Serverless Architecture is Still Here

Kevin Dangoor on May 31, 2018

What do software architects at Khan Academy do?

Kevin Dangoor on May 14, 2018

New data pipeline management platform at Khan Academy

Ragini Gupta on Apr 30, 2018

Untangling our Python Code

Carter J. Bastian on Apr 16, 2018

Slicker: A Tool for Moving Things in Python

Ben Kraft on Apr 2, 2018

The Great Python Refactor of 2017 And Also 2018

Craig Silverstein on Mar 19, 2018

Working Remotely

Scott Grant on Oct 2, 2017

Tips for giving your first code reviews

Hannah Blumberg on Sep 18, 2017

Let's Reduce! A Gentle Introduction to Javascript's Reduce Method

Josh Comeau on Jul 10, 2017

Creating Query Components with Apollo

Brian Genisio on Jun 12, 2017

Migrating to a Mobile Monorepo for React Native

Jared Forsyth on May 29, 2017

Memcached-Backed Content Infrastructure

Ben Kraft on May 15, 2017

Profiling App Engine Memcached

Ben Kraft on May 1, 2017

App Engine Flex Language Shootout

Amos Latteier on Apr 17, 2017

What's New in OSS at Khan Academy

Brian Genisio on Apr 3, 2017

Automating App Store Screenshots

Bryan Clark on Mar 27, 2017

It's Okay to Break Things: Reflections on Khan Academy's Healthy Hackathon

Kimerie Green on Mar 6, 2017

Interning at Khan Academy: from student to intern

Shadaj Laddad on Dec 12, 2016

Prototyping with Framer

Nick Breen on Oct 3, 2016

Evolving our content infrastructure

William Chargin on Sep 19, 2016

Building a Really, Really Small Android App

Charlie Marsh on Aug 22, 2016

A Case for Time Tracking: Data Driven Time-Management

Oliver Northwood on Aug 8, 2016

Time Management at Khan Academy

Several Authors on Jul 25, 2016

Hackathons Can Be Healthy

Tom Yedwab on Jul 11, 2016

Ensuring transaction-safety in Google App Engine

Craig Silverstein on Jun 27, 2016

The User Write Lock: an Alternative to Transactions for Google App Engine

Craig Silverstein on Jun 20, 2016

Khan Academy's Engineering Principles

Ben Kamens on Jun 6, 2016

Minimizing the length of regular expressions, in practice

Craig Silverstein on May 23, 2016

Introducing SwiftTweaks

Bryan Clark on May 9, 2016

The Autonomous Dumbledore

Evy Kassirer on Apr 25, 2016

Engineering career development at Khan Academy

Ben Eater on Apr 11, 2016

Inline CSS at Khan Academy: Aphrodite

Jamie Wong on Mar 29, 2016

Starting Android at Khan Academy

Ben Komalo on Feb 29, 2016

Automating Highly Similar Translations

Kevin Barabash on Feb 15, 2016

The weekly snippet-server: open-sourced

Craig Silverstein on Feb 1, 2016

Stories from our latest intern class

2015 Interns on Dec 21, 2015

Kanbanning the LearnStorm Dev Process

Kevin Dangoor on Dec 7, 2015

Forgo JS packaging? Not so fast

Craig Silverstein on Nov 23, 2015

Switching to Slack

Benjamin Pollack on Nov 9, 2015

Receiving feedback as an intern at Khan Academy

David Wang on Oct 26, 2015

Schrödinger's deploys no more: how we update translations

Chelsea Voss on Oct 12, 2015

i18nize-templates: Internationalization After the Fact

Craig Silverstein on Sep 28, 2015

Making thumbnails fast

William Chargin on Sep 14, 2015

Copy-pasting more than just text

Sam Lau on Aug 31, 2015

No cheating allowed!!

Phillip Lemons on Aug 17, 2015

Fun with slope fields, css and react

Marcos Ojeda on Aug 5, 2015

Khan Academy: a new employee's primer

Riley Shaw on Jul 20, 2015

How wooden puzzles can destroy dev teams

John Sullivan on Jul 6, 2015

Babel in Khan Academy's i18n Toolchain

Kevin Barabash on Jun 22, 2015

tota11y - an accessibility visualization toolkit

Jordan Scales on Jun 8, 2015


Building a Really, Really Small Android App

by Charlie Marsh on Aug 22, 2016

App size is important to us.

As a team striving to deliver a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere, it’s essential that we build an app our learners can download and keep around on-disk, no matter the quality of their data plan or device. (App size is of particular interest to us on Android given the potential for Instant Apps.)

For our most recent Healthy Hackathon, I set off to build the smallest useful Khan Academy Android app. I set these constraints for myself:

  • The app must be able to play any video in our content library (i.e., I excluded support for other content types, like practice exercises).
  • The app must be polished enough to plausibly ship (i.e., it should use our color palette, include some KA branding, and so forth).
  • The app should be backwards compatible to at least Android API 16, Jelly Bean (the earliest version that our existing app supports).
  • The download payload must be under 1 MB [1].

As it turned out, this last constraint was far too conservative—the final APK clocked in at a download size of 26 kilobytes. But before we review the numbers, let's take a look at the app itself.

A Minimally Viable Video Player

The basic flow of the app is straightforward: on each screen, you're presented with a list of topics. Tapping on a topic takes you one level deeper in the hierarchy, until you reach a playable video.

Navigating to a video.

Navigating to a video (15 FPS recording).

The app is compatible back to API version 10 (Gingerbread). It also works offline, to a degree: you can navigate to a screen you’ve visited before without connectivity, even across restarts.

This whole experience clocks in at just 26 kilobytes (20 kilobytes for pre-Lollipop devices) to download, with the APK expanding to 40 kilobytes on-disk for an L-device—far, far below my 1 MB goal, and more than 1000 times smaller than our existing app.

(Here's a link to the Hackathon-quality source!)

Breaking Down the APK

If our existing app is 1000 times larger than this minimally viable video player, where are we spending those extra megabytes? And what is this tiny app doing differently?

To answer these questions, I whipped out Android Studio's new APK Analyzer.

The output of Android Studio's APK Analyzer, when run over our minimal app

A breakdown of the minimal video player app's APK. The estimated raw file size was a slight underestimation compared to what I measured on-disk.

In comparing this APK to that of our existing app, I bucketed app size contributions into three categories: assets (images, fonts, etc.), content, and code.

For reference, our existing Android app measures 31 MB to download and 40+ MB on-disk. (We're working hard to bring these numbers down!) The download size is roughly split between assets, content, and code as 17 MB, 10 MB, and 4 MB respectively.

For the minimal app, the classes.dex file comprises the majority of the contribution from code, though much of the layout-* subdirectories could also be considered 'code'; the drawable-*/ and mipmap-* directories contain our assets; and content is nowhere to be seen.

Let's review each pillar in-turn.


In our existing Android app, assets (and images, in particular, which power much of our UI) make up nearly half of our download size. Worse still, since these assets (JPGs and PNGs) are already compressed, their contributions to our app’s download and on-disk sizes are roughly 1:1. Fonts are a challenge as well, since we not only package fonts for cosmetic purposes, but also to support math rendering.

The minimalist approach to assets: Don't use any! (Or, at least, only include essential assets, and only when necessary.) I intentionally opted for a minimal, text-based UI, which makes theming cheap and easy, since you can rely on a color palette and avoid packaging any images. Rather than using the wonderful fonts that power our existing app, I opted to mimic the system font instead (and didn't tackle math rendering in any way, given that I stuck to video content).

For the few assets that I did include, I took care to minimize their footprint in a few ways. For example, with our logo (as seen in the app bar), my goal was to package just a single version of the asset, and only for devices that would actually use it. So, to keep the contribution down, I first ran the asset through an SVG minifier and then packaged it as a single VectorDrawable, which saved me the need to include a larger-resolution image for each density bucket, much less the font we use to render it (which would've contributed tens of KBs by itself).

I also built out a separate APK for pre-Lollipop devices to exclude the VectorDrawable asset and any other extraneous layout resources (like the custom toolbar layout).

Content Library

In our existing Android app, content (or, more accurately, our content library's metadata) makes up about 30% of our download size, though that contribution nearly triples on-disk, since these files compress quite well.

Our content library consists of tens of thousands of videos, articles, and exercises. In building out our Android app, it was important to us that learners have a snappy experience on first-run, and that they could use the app to browse through our library even while offline. For simplicity, we started off by shipping the metadata describing the structure of our content library with the APK itself, which allow for immediate navigation through the content hierarchy, regardless of connectivity status. (Unfortunately, this requires that we package a separate metadata database for each language that we support. (We're working on it!))

The minimalist approach to content: Only download the minimal metadata that you need for a given screen, as the user approaches it. To make for a snappier experience, pre-fetch content as the user moves down the topic tree, and cache liberally.

This app in particular fetches the metadata needed to render the first N child topics upon opening a new topic screen. Since each topic maps to a single HTTP request, the app can rely on a very simple URL cache to implement persistence and support offline navigation.

I also slimmed down the sheer amount of data necessary to power the UI, removing the need for certain information (like the download size for a given video or the URL at which it can be downloaded) needed in our existing Android UI. Given this minimal design, the entire topic tree could be cached on disk over time.


In our existing Android app, code makes up a small portion of the total download size—less than 10% [2]. It is the least significant of these three pillars. In the context of a 26 KB app, though, code size becomes critical. (It's also the most interesting to optimize.)

I combined a couple different approaches to minimize code size.

First: the app has zero dependencies. No Retrofit, no support library, no Guava—no nothing. Instead, the codebase relies on the Android framework as much as possible, taking advantage of all the functionality that ships with Android devices. This decision impacted both the UI/UX layer and the level of abstraction at which I could operate as the engineer. For example, the app:

  • Uses the system video player (VideoView and MediaController), rather than the nicer, more customizable, and more feature-complete ExoPlayer.
  • Implements asynchronous operations with AsyncTask, rather than e.g., RxJava (which we use heavily in our existing app).
  • Performs all networking with HttpURLConnection and org.json, rather than relying on nicer libraries like OkHttp, Retrofit, and the like.

'Zero dependencies' also implies no Android support libraries, which has its own implications (e.g., no Fragments (if you want to support pre-Honeycomb devices), a non-uniform action bar across API versions).

(As an aside: I'd recommend that every Android engineer take a crack at building a zero-dependency app. It's a great learning experience.)

Beyond the 'no dependencies' rule, I made a few other optimizations at the end, when the APK was getting really tiny, though I tried to avoid sacrificing readability or robustness. These included:

  • Running the output APK through Facebook's bytecode optimizer, Redex. This brought the download size down from 30.7 KB to 26.2 KB.
  • Removing any strings that were used merely for logging or to decorate error messages (the justification being that these could, in theory, be reconstructed server-side). This cut another 1.4 KB.
  • Converting from enums to static integers. I mostly did this as a joke and haven't actually analyzed the Dex dump to see how it impacted the resulting bytecode, though the download size did come down by another 1.2 KB.

All of this was on top of Jack's minification.

Of course, another way that I reduced code size was simply by doing less. Our existing app has interactive articles and exercises, adaptive streaming, offline playback, search, bookmarking, and more. And we pay for that functionality by writing and shipping more code. (In my own (early) experiments to parse our Dexfile and analyze code size contributions by package, I’ve found that our own code makes up about 27% of all instructions.)

To be able to ship a viable video player app with just an 11 KB Dexfile is pretty astounding, given that we've identified individual Swift files that contribute over a kilobyte per line to our IPA.

Going Forward

Though our existing Android app is far larger than 26 KB, the good news is that many of the approaches that I took here were inspired by changes that we're already planning to make to that codebase.

For example, 'fetch the minimal content necessary to power a screen' is something that we're actively exploring, as is 'only package the assets that are absolutely necessary [for a given device]' (through a combination of APK splitting and other optimizations).

Though we may not reduce our app size to mere kilobytes, with any luck, we'll be able to cut it down substantially using similar techniques to those explored in this post.

Interested in making slim Android apps to bring education to millions of learners globally? Come join us!

[1] All download sizes were taken from Android Studio 2.2's new APK Analyzer, which is still in 'Preview'. On-disk sizes were taken from the 'Total Storage' reading of the 'App Info' screen, on-device.

[2] This excludes the APK contributions that come from the JavaScript bundles that we ship with the app, which power our interactive article and exercise experiences. Those contribute to our app size in a substantial way, but the optimization story there differs significantly, and so I chose not to explore that avenue in this project.