Khan Engineering

Khan Engineering

We're the engineers behind Khan Academy. We're building a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere.


Latest posts

Making Websites Work with Windows High Contrast Mode

Diedra Rater on March 21

Kotlin for Python developers

Aasmund Eldhuset on Nov 29, 2018

Using static analysis in Python, JavaScript and more to make your system safer

Kevin Dangoor on Jul 26, 2018

Kotlin on the server at Khan Academy

Colin Fuller on Jun 28, 2018

The Original Serverless Architecture is Still Here

Kevin Dangoor on May 31, 2018

What do software architects at Khan Academy do?

Kevin Dangoor on May 14, 2018

New data pipeline management platform at Khan Academy

Ragini Gupta on Apr 30, 2018

Untangling our Python Code

Carter J. Bastian on Apr 16, 2018

Slicker: A Tool for Moving Things in Python

Ben Kraft on Apr 2, 2018

The Great Python Refactor of 2017 And Also 2018

Craig Silverstein on Mar 19, 2018

Working Remotely

Scott Grant on Oct 2, 2017

Tips for giving your first code reviews

Hannah Blumberg on Sep 18, 2017

Let's Reduce! A Gentle Introduction to Javascript's Reduce Method

Josh Comeau on Jul 10, 2017

Creating Query Components with Apollo

Brian Genisio on Jun 12, 2017

Migrating to a Mobile Monorepo for React Native

Jared Forsyth on May 29, 2017

Memcached-Backed Content Infrastructure

Ben Kraft on May 15, 2017

Profiling App Engine Memcached

Ben Kraft on May 1, 2017

App Engine Flex Language Shootout

Amos Latteier on Apr 17, 2017

What's New in OSS at Khan Academy

Brian Genisio on Apr 3, 2017

Automating App Store Screenshots

Bryan Clark on Mar 27, 2017

It's Okay to Break Things: Reflections on Khan Academy's Healthy Hackathon

Kimerie Green on Mar 6, 2017

Interning at Khan Academy: from student to intern

Shadaj Laddad on Dec 12, 2016

Prototyping with Framer

Nick Breen on Oct 3, 2016

Evolving our content infrastructure

William Chargin on Sep 19, 2016

Building a Really, Really Small Android App

Charlie Marsh on Aug 22, 2016

A Case for Time Tracking: Data Driven Time-Management

Oliver Northwood on Aug 8, 2016

Time Management at Khan Academy

Several Authors on Jul 25, 2016

Hackathons Can Be Healthy

Tom Yedwab on Jul 11, 2016

Ensuring transaction-safety in Google App Engine

Craig Silverstein on Jun 27, 2016

The User Write Lock: an Alternative to Transactions for Google App Engine

Craig Silverstein on Jun 20, 2016

Khan Academy's Engineering Principles

Ben Kamens on Jun 6, 2016

Minimizing the length of regular expressions, in practice

Craig Silverstein on May 23, 2016

Introducing SwiftTweaks

Bryan Clark on May 9, 2016

The Autonomous Dumbledore

Evy Kassirer on Apr 25, 2016

Engineering career development at Khan Academy

Ben Eater on Apr 11, 2016

Inline CSS at Khan Academy: Aphrodite

Jamie Wong on Mar 29, 2016

Starting Android at Khan Academy

Ben Komalo on Feb 29, 2016

Automating Highly Similar Translations

Kevin Barabash on Feb 15, 2016

The weekly snippet-server: open-sourced

Craig Silverstein on Feb 1, 2016

Stories from our latest intern class

2015 Interns on Dec 21, 2015

Kanbanning the LearnStorm Dev Process

Kevin Dangoor on Dec 7, 2015

Forgo JS packaging? Not so fast

Craig Silverstein on Nov 23, 2015

Switching to Slack

Benjamin Pollack on Nov 9, 2015

Receiving feedback as an intern at Khan Academy

David Wang on Oct 26, 2015

Schrödinger's deploys no more: how we update translations

Chelsea Voss on Oct 12, 2015

i18nize-templates: Internationalization After the Fact

Craig Silverstein on Sep 28, 2015

Making thumbnails fast

William Chargin on Sep 14, 2015

Copy-pasting more than just text

Sam Lau on Aug 31, 2015

No cheating allowed!!

Phillip Lemons on Aug 17, 2015

Fun with slope fields, css and react

Marcos Ojeda on Aug 5, 2015

Khan Academy: a new employee's primer

Riley Shaw on Jul 20, 2015

How wooden puzzles can destroy dev teams

John Sullivan on Jul 6, 2015

Babel in Khan Academy's i18n Toolchain

Kevin Barabash on Jun 22, 2015

tota11y - an accessibility visualization toolkit

Jordan Scales on Jun 8, 2015


No cheating allowed!!

by Phillip Lemons on Aug 17, 2015

The problem

Recently, a number of students on Khan Academy found a way to cheat by taking hints offline and not having them counted towards their online profile. When going through exercises on Khan Academy you answer the problems given to you and receive feedback on whether your answer was correct or incorrect. If you get stuck on a problem you are able to take hints and have that problem counted as incorrect. Check out this exercise if you want to try it yourself. The images below show the user getting a correct answer and taking a hint respectively.

Correct answer screenshot Taking a hint screenshot

The cheaters realized that if they disconnected from the internet, took the hints, and reconnected, they would still have a problem counted as correct. Taking offline hints worked this way because our servers expect a request from the client when users take a hint or answer a problem. If the users were disconnected from the internet the server would never see the request and the request was not stored anywhere on the client so it would be lost.

How did we fix this?

In order to address the offline cheating, we decided to change how the client sends requests to the server. By utilizing the client’s local storage, we could store failed requests to be retried once the user reconnected to the internet. This solution has the added benefit of removing the need for the client to be connected to the server all the time. Users with a spotty internet connection would have a better experience because everything would work even if the internet cut out for a short period of time.

In our new architecture, anytime a user performs an action a string representing that action is stored in a queue that is saved to localstorage. When the queue is consumed, each action is mapped to a function that implements the action. This approach allows us to have more control over what happens when a request is not received by the server. The new queue retries any actions that fail and implements a linear backoff function so as not to be constantly sending requests when the user is not connected to the internet.

Below is an image that shows the old architecture (left) and the new architecture (right). If the old client never received a response from the server the request would never be retried. In the new architecture the request is retried until it reaches the server and we get a response.

Architecture screenshot

A nice consequence of this architecture is that it can be generalized to work in other parts of our system. Code that deals with sending requests to the server can be updated to use this architecture and work more consistently even with a bad internet connection. Supporting an offline mode also becomes a possibility because you can just save all of the actions the user makes and send them to the server at a later time when the user has reconnected to the internet.

The downside

One of the biggest downsides with this implementation is that with some editing of the user’s local storage, a hint request can be erased from the action queue. We decided this was acceptable for a couple of reasons. First, our typical classroom user is unlikely to know how to edit their local storage. Second, even if the user edits their local storage, it is visually obvious to those in the same room that they are up to something. A teacher can easily see students messing around with the chrome devtools and act accordingly.


A client based architecture makes for a much better user experience because a spotty connection does not create a barrier to using our application. In our case, it also made it much harder to cheat on exercise problems and was a great way to make server requests more reliable. Additionally, this architecture makes having an offline mode more feasible.